Professor nguyen fall 2014 his 1003 oral history project. For some purposes the flag of a white crescent and three stars on green was still used until 1958. The military coup detat of 23 july ostensibly directed against top officers who were involved in cor ruption during the 1948 palestine fightinghas resulted in. Pages in category egyptian revolution of 1952 the following 8 pages are in this category, out of 8 total. Background although the ottoman empire retained nominal sovereignty over egypt, the political connection between the two countries was largely severed by the seizure of power by muhammad ali in 1805, and reenforced by the british occupation of egypt in.
The free officers movement was a group that consisted of army officers who wanted to abolish the monarchy allied to the british empire and end the muhammad ali dynasty of egypt and sudan. The egyptian revolution of 1952, also known as the july 23 revolution. It was the first organized speech against the king in egypts history. Prior to discussing the direct and indirect reasons behind the egyptian revolution, it is worth elaborating on the economic, social, and political circumstances of egypt prior to the 25th of january revolution. The military coup in egypt central intelligence agency. Egypt, country located in the northeastern corner of africa. A protester stands in front of a burning barricade during a demonstration in cairo, egypt, 2011. Egypts people continued to riot, and on july 26th 1952, king farouk was overthrown. The goal of the revolution was to overthrow king farouk and his son, to remove any remnants of british influence in the government, and to end the. The revolution, carried out by military officers led by colonel gamal abdel nasser, would change egypt by ending british occupation and the rule of ottoman elites, and by establishing economic. Sixtythree years on from the 1952 revolution which ousted king farouk, widely known as the 23 july revolution in egypt, the events history and its effects on the countrys history are still a. Poljarevic, emin 2009, egypt, revolution of 1952, international encyclopedia of revolution and protest immanuel ness et al eds. Much of egypts ancient history was a mystery until egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the rosetta stone.
They streamed across the venerable qasr alnil bridge, broke through security barriers as they raced through downtown streets, and marched in small clusters or long lines along the nile corniche from the southern and northern districts. The egyptian revolution of 1952 professornguyen fall2014. The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing king farouk. Their revolution was prompted by grievances with the government that had deep social, economic, political and historical roots. The july 23, 1952 revolution led by gamal abdel nasser and embraced by the popular will rendered true the dream of generations for independence andevacuation of foreign forces. Egyptian revolution, it is worth elaborating on the economic. The egyptian revolution of 1952 arabic language 23 1952.
In egypt, the society of free officers seizes control of the government in a military coup detat staged by. Congressional research service 1 historical background since 1952, when a cabal of egyptian army officers, known as the free officers movement, ousted the britishbacked king, egypts military has produced four presidents. About 45% of the egyptian population was living beneath the poverty line of usd2 per day. Lieutenantcolonel gamal abdel nasser, prime minister of egypt, president of the council of the revolution command. As shortages proliferated and casualties mounted, popular discontent soared to a level unknown since the revolution of 1952. The realization of a new economic reform, began in 1991 and that is still going on. However, the movement had more political ambitions, and soon moved to abolish the constitutional monarchy and aristocracy of egypt and sudan, establish a republic, end the british occupation of the country, and. An opponent of ousted president mohammed morsi holds up a poster of egyptian defense minister general abdul fatah alsisi with an arabic words that. Among the seven wonders of the ancient world, is the great. Main causes of the egyptian conflict with mubarak synonym. On january 25, 2011, thousands poured into tahrir square, the symbolic heart of cairo. Economic conditions in egypt prior to 25th of january revolution. The nationalist wafd party was formed in 1924, two years after egypt gained its independence from britain.
Remembering the 1952 egyptian revolution middle east monitor. The revolution is alternately known as the 23 july revolution. Egypts political scene is similar to that of most countries with a. Egypts heartland, the nile river valley and delta, was the home of one of the principal civilizations of the ancient middle east and was the site of one of the worlds earliest urban and literate societies. They were even far greater than the mass demonstrations which toppled the socialist era. International encyclopedia of revolution and protest, ed. Ecology and culture in modern arabic poetry 2015 international journal of research in humanities and social studies v2 i5 may 2015 86 in 1919 the political party, alwafd, started the first revolution in egypt in the twentieth. Countries of the world series know everything about egypt duration. The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing king farouk i. Citizens are back in the most direct manner, using the street, regaining control over the street as a political arena, which once again did not exist in egypt since 1952.
Ben alis in tunisia on 17 january, mubaraks in egypt on 11 february, qadhafis in libya on 23 august, and saleh in yemen. Britain went to war against egypt over the suez canal. It dominated egyptian politics until the 1952 coup when it was dissolved but reemerged in opposition in 1984. Elegantly crafted, brilliantly argued, and richly and evocatively evidenced, ketchleys egypt in a time of revolution is unparalleled in its methodological and theoretical sophistication and its empirical and analytical strengths the single most impressive piece of scholarship on the socalled arab spring and one of the very best studies. During wwi, the defense of the suez canal was one of the top priorities for the british. Egyptian revolution 1952 witty 2011 major reference works. Covert diplomacy between israel and egypt during nasser rule.
Israel also tried to turn to egypt in 1952 through individuals who did not hold official positions. This would prove to be crucial in the act of revolution and the years immediately after. The egyptian revolution of 1952 was staged during the. The political environment in egypt was known in all the declarations of constitutional and constitutions interim that followed the 1952 revolution up to the permanent constitution in 1971, as amended, and until the 25th of january revolution, as a mixed system in form or constitutional. Us aid to egypt exacerbated the burden wartime expenditure placed on the economy, already strained by the radical socialization drive of the 1960s, and drove egypt deeper into debt to the soviet union. The egyptian revolution of 1952 was staged during the night of july 22 to the 23, 1952. Rioting against the ing royalfriendly officers for the army leadership. Egypts new attitude towards positive neutralism coincided with soviet realisation that egypt was the most favourable state to approach in the eastern mediterranean. Prior to the revolution on the 25th of january, the economy in. Revolution july 23, 1952 is a military coup began on july 23, 1952 in egypt by a group of officers calling themselves the free officers organization, and launched a revolution in the beginning, the movement of the army, and then later known as the revolution of july 23. At the time of writing, the arab spring has seen the collapse of four heads of the regions authoritarian regimes. Country marks five years since the start of demonstrations that led to the downfall of longtime ruler hosni mubarak.
Egyptian revolution of 1952 project gutenberg self. The egyptian revolution of 1952, also known as the 1952 coup detat or 23 july revolution, began on 23 july 1952, by the free officers movement, a group of army officers led by mohammed naguib and gamal abdel nasser. Egypt, revolution of 1952 poljarevic major reference works. The term arab spring, while controversial, has come to represent the events that have rocked this region since the beginning of 2011. Usegyptian relations from the 1952 revolution to the suez c ris is resembled to some extent a game of chess between nasser of egypt, and. On wednesday morning, 23 july 1952, a military coup occurred in egypt, carried out by the free officers and led by general muhammad naguib, but the real power behind the military coup was gamal abdel nasser.
The egyptian revolution of 1952 ended foreign domination of egypt and marked the first time that egyptians would rule themselves since the pharaohs. Beginning in december 2010, unprecedented mass demonstrations against poverty, corruption, and political repression broke out in several arab countries, challenging the authority of some of the most entrenched regimes in the middle east and north africa. Abstract the egyptian revolution of 1952 ended foreign domination of egypt and marked the first time that egyptians would rule themselves. Hala ewaidat the nile and the egyptian revolutions. A history of the egyptian revolution by dr khaled fahmy duration.
General neguib ended the monarchical system in egypt and became president of the newly formed republic. Egypts government approve a 15 per cent raise in salaries and pensions in a bid to appease the angry masses. The egyptian revolution of 1952 early morning on july 23 1952, egypt would wake up to find itself in the wake of an eminent revolution. Pdf egyptian revolution causes, incidents and results. On 23 july 1952 the free officers movement led by general muhammad naguib and nasser overthrew king farouk. Gamal abdel nasser 19541970, anwar sadat 19701981, hosni mubarak 19812011, and abdel fattah al sisi 20present. The former was led by the free officers club, which like urabi and his colleagues, was a group of military officers with grievances against the government. Pdf egypt, revolution of 1952 emin poljarevic academia. For months political and social issues have been boiling over, throwing the country into disarray and chaos. This bloodless overthrow of the egyptian government. The paper refers to the new economic reformation in egypt. Egyptians have revolted several times in recent historyin 1882, 1919, 1952. Demographics, technology, foreign policy, legitimacy of the state, torture, corruption and other factors all played a part in bringing discontented egyptians.
Almost 5% of people held over 80% of egypts resources, and the other 95% shared the remaining 20% of. After the egyptian revolution of 1952, the british agreed to withdraw their troops and did so by june 1956. Large contingents of entente forces were stationed in egypt and drained the area of vital food and supplies. Egypt affirmed its arab allegiance, opened up to its african continent and muslim world, supported. The economic development in egypt during the 19522007. Egyptian revolution, also known as arab spring or arab uprising, was a shock for international community because egypt has been seen as one of the strongest military state in north africa region. In many ways, the 1952 revolution resembles the urabi revolt.786 75 1378 915 831 190 1289 1182 1205 13 1308 51 774 24 1014 222 1074 87 150 127 500 434 1366 546 1511 757 211 677 67 821 1112 642 782 68 400 582 602 224 807 1351